- In 2015, 39% of the global population (2.9 billion people) used a safely managed sanitation service – defined as use of a toilet or improved latrine, not shared with other households, with a system in place to ensure that excreta are treated or disposed of safely.
- 27% of the global population (1.9 billion people) used private sanitation facilities connected to sewers from which wastewater was treated.
- 13% of the global population (0.9 billion people) used toilets or latrines where excreta were disposed of in situ.
- 68% of the world’s population (5.0 billion people) used at least a basic sanitation service.
- 2.3 billion people still do not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets or latrines.
- Of these, 892 million still defecate in the open, for example in street gutters, behind bushes or into open bodies of water.
- At least 10% of the world’s population is thought to consume food irrigated by wastewater.
- Poor sanitation is linked to transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid and polio.
- Inadequate sanitation is estimated to cause 280 000 diarrhoeal deaths annually and is a major factor in several neglected tropical diseases, including intestinal worms, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Poor sanitation also contributes to malnutrition.
Hygienic sanitation facilities are crucial for public health. Since 1990, the number of people gaining access to improved sanitation has risen from 54% to 68% but some 2.3 billion people still do not have toilets or improved latrines.
In 2010, the UN General Assembly recognized access to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right, and called for international efforts to help countries to provide safe, clean, accessible and affordable drinking water and sanitation.
Despite progress, the 2015 Millennium Development Goal target to halve the proportion of the population without access to improved sanitation facilities was missed by almost 700 million people.
Sanitation and health
Some 842 000 people in low- and middle-income countries die as a result of inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene each year, representing 58% of total diarrhoeal deaths. Poor sanitation is believed to be the main cause in some 280 000 of these deaths.
Diarrhoea remains a major killer but is largely preventable. Better water, sanitation, and hygiene could prevent the deaths of 361 000 children aged under 5 years each year.
Open defecation perpetuates a vicious cycle of disease and poverty. The countries where open defection is most widespread have the highest number of deaths of children aged under 5 years as well as the highest levels of malnutrition and poverty, and big disparities of wealth.
Benefits of improving sanitation
Benefits of improved sanitation extend well beyond reducing the risk of diarrhoea. These include:
- reducing the spread of intestinal worms, schistosomiasis and trachoma, which are neglected tropical diseases that cause suffering for millions;
- reducing the severity and impact of malnutrition;
- promoting dignity and boosting safety, particularly among women and girls;
- promoting school attendance: girls’ school attendance is particularly boosted by the provision of separate sanitary facilities; and
- potential recovery of water, renewable energy and nutrients from faecal waste.
A WHO study in 2012 calculated that for every US$ 1.00 invested in sanitation, there was a return of US$ 5.50 in lower health costs, more productivity, and fewer premature deaths.
In 2013, the UN Deputy Secretary General issued a call to action on sanitation that included the elimination of open defecation by 2025. Achieving universal access to a basic drinking water source appears within reach, but universal access to basic sanitation will require additional efforts.
The situation of the urban poor poses a growing challenge as they live increasingly in mega cities where sewerage is precarious or non-existent and space for toilets and removal of waste is at a premium. Inequalities in access are compounded when sewage removed from wealthier households is discharged into storm drains, waterways or landfills, polluting poor residential areas.
Limited data available on this topic suggests that a large proportion of wastewater in developing countries is discharged partially treated or untreated directly into rivers, lakes or the ocean.
Wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource providing reliable water and nutrients for food production to feed growing urban populations. Yet this requires:
- management practices that ensure wastewater is sufficiently treated and safely reused;
- institutional oversight and regulation; and
- public education campaigns to inform people about wastewater use.
As the international authority on public health, WHO leads global efforts to prevent transmission of diseases, advising governments on health-based regulations.
On sanitation, WHO monitors global burden of disease and the level of sanitation access and analyses what helps and hinders progress. Such monitoring gives Member States and donors global data to help decide how to invest in providing toilets and ensuring safe management of wastewater and excreta.
WHO works with partners on promoting effective risk assessment and management practices for sanitation through Sanitation safety planning, Guidelines on safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater, and forthcoming Sanitation and Health Guidelines and Global strategy on water, sanitation and hygiene and neglected tropical diseases.
WHO is also working with UNICEF on a global action plan for ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. This aims to meet several prevention and treatment targets, including promoting universal access to drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene in health care facilities and homes by 2030.
Increasing people’s access to improved sanitation, combined with delivering preventive chemotherapy, is also part of the five global public health strategies for the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases.